Is ASPCA good charity?
Is ASPCA good charity?
Good. This charity’s score is 83.36, earning it a 3-Star rating. Donors can “Give with Confidence” to this charity.
What does animal welfare mean?
What is an animal welfare organizationView 1+ more
What is the concept of animal welfare?
Animal welfare refers to the state of the animal; the treatment that an animal receives is covered by other terms such as animal care, animal husbandry, and humane treatment. Protecting an animal’s welfare means providing for its physical and mental needs.
Does the ASPCA actually help animals?
The ASPCA is the oldest animal welfare organization in the country and a leader in hands-on work protecting, rescuing, and caring for thousands of vulnerable animals nationwide.
How much of Aspca donations actually go to animals?
What percentage of my donation goes to the animals? Based on our latest available financial data, approximately 77 cents of every dollar we spend advances the ASPCA’s mission through lifesaving programs and services around the country.
Why is Farm animal welfare important?
Farm animal welfare: the benefits Humane farms can create jobs, boost profits and keep local food supplies healthy. By farming crops and livestock, humane farms can reduce environmental damage recycling nutrients and improving the soil.
Which animal charity gives the highest percentage?
The Gorilla Fund is one of the best charities to donate to because 87 percent of every dollar donated goes toward the nonprofit’s programs.
Is ASPCA a ripoff?
The independent watchdog CharityWatch finds that ASPCA spends up to 40 percent of its budget on overhead, and up to 38 cents to raise every dollar, giving the organization a middling “C” rating in its Summer 2019 rating guide.
What are the 5 freedoms and what do they mean?
The Five Freedoms tell us our pets have five welfare needs diet, environment, health, companionship, and behaviour. Many cats prefer to be solitary, while others enjoy companionship from other felines..21-Nov-2018
How much money does the CEO of the ASPCA make?
ASPCA CEO earns a whopping $750,000+ salary.
What is animal welfare and why is it important?
As a guiding philosophy for legislation and regulations, animal welfare attempts to mitigate the suffering of human-controlled animals and to ensure a minimum standard of living conditions and treatment.
What percentage of PETA donations go to animals?
PETA is a leader among nonprofits with regard to the efficient use of funds. PETA undergoes an independent financial audit each year. In fiscal year 2020, over 82 percent of our funding went directly to programs to help animals.
What are the main points of the animal welfare Act?
On August 24, the Laboratory Animal Welfare Act (P.L. 89-544) is signed into law. The Act sets minimum standards of care and housing for dogs, cats, primates, rabbits, hamsters and guinea pigs in the premises of animal dealers and laboratories, and it requires identification of dogs and cats to prevent theft.
What are the 3 main concepts of animal welfare?
The concept of animal welfare includes three elements: the animal’s normal biological functioning (which, among other things, means ensuring that the animal is healthy and well-nourished), its emotional state (including the absence of negative emotions, such as pain and chronic fear), and its ability to express certain
What percent of donations go to animals through the ASPCA?
What percentage of my donation goes to the animals? Based on our latest available financial data, approximately 77 cents of every dollar we spend advances the ASPCA’s mission through lifesaving programs and services around the country. More information on how donations are put to work can be found here.
What are the five points of animal welfare?
These Five Freedoms are globally recognized as the gold standard in animal welfare, encompassing both the mental and physical well-being of animals; they include: freedom from hunger and thirst; freedom from discomfort; freedom from pain, injury, and disease; freedom to express normal and natural behavior (e.g.
How much money does PETA get in donations?
PETA collected almost $42 million in donations in 2015 alone, but few donors understand exactly where their money is going. Over a ten year period, PETA spent four times as much on criminals and their legal defense than it has on shelters, spay-neuter programs, and other efforts that actually help animals.
Top 15 Best Animal Charities You Can Donate To in 2021
Mission: To improve the welfare of wild and domestic animals throughout the world by reducing commercial exploitation of animals, protecting wildlife habitats, and assisting animals in distress. Charity Navigator Rating: 86.43 out of 100. The International Fund for Animal Welfare was founded in 1969 to stop the hunting of seals in Canada. Now
The Best Animal Charities You Should Know About
Christina Donnelly is a small animal expert focusing on dogs and writer with over 12 years of experience in animal welfare. She has volunteered for shelters and organizations, including the ASPCA and Woodstock Farm Animal Sanctuary.
9 Best Animal Rescue Charities (Complete 2022 List
The best charities for animal rescue for overall impact are the Animal Welfare Institute and the Brother Wolf Animal Rescue. For specialized charities, the Alley Cat Allies, Elephant Sanctuary in Tennessee, and the Marine Mammal Centre are great charities to look into.
Animal Welfare – FOUNDATION FOR LAKE CHAPALA CHARITIES
Other Animal Welfare Organization Specify the charity of your choice when making this selection. If no designation is specified, we will determine which charities are the most in need at the time of your donation. Tails of Mexico Provides spay & neuter clinics in Jocotepec Website:
Animal Welfare Institute | Charity Ratings | Donating Tips
Below are select notes that CharityWatch believes may be of interest to donors. According to the Animal Welfare Institute (AWI) audit of (Note 5, Concentrations): “AWI received approximately 23% of its total contributions from three contributors in 2018 and 45% of its total contributions from four contributors in 2017.” Top. Top.
The best charities for helping animals – Vox
The California-based nonprofit puts out an annual guide for recommended animal charities, and it just released its list for this year. (Disclosure: ACE helped fund some of Future Perfect’s work
Animal welfare charities – The GiveWell Blog
Animal welfare charities. Added 7/15/21: This blog post reflects the personal views of GiveWell’s co-founder in 2010; it does not represent GiveWell’s organizational view on animal welfare as a cause area. For more on why we don’t currently focus on animal welfare, see here.
Charity Reviews | Animal Charity Evaluators
For a more comprehensive list of charities we’ve considered over the years, see our Evaluation Process Archive. Learn more about our sort categories: Review Status (Top Charity, Standout Charity) Depth of Review (Comprehensive, Considered) Type of Work (Industrial Agriculture, General Animal Welfare, etc.) Top Charities (3)
Animal Welfare – Raising for Effective Giving
Additional standout animal welfare charities. In addition to the top recommendations, REG believes the following animal welfare charities to be highly cost-effective. They’re not featured on the donation page, but if you want to donate to them please get in touch with us.
Animals – Charity Navigator
Animal Rights, Welfare, and Services (354) Animal Rights, Welfare, and Services charities include humane societies and veterinary services; no-kill shelters, organizations protecting animals from cruelty, exploitation and other abuses; and groups providing animal training and specialty services, such as groups training guide dogs.
Ukraine animal charities: 5 verified nonprofits to help
Animal welfare groups work to get pet food and supplies to refugees’ pets as well as to shelter animals trapped in Ukraine following the Russian invasion. 5 verified charities working on the
Animal welfare charities | Australian Taxation Office
Animal welfare charities. This information explains the characteristics of an animal welfare charity for the purposes of endorsement as a deductible gift recipient (DGR). The meaning of animal for this purpose is broad and includes land animals, reptiles, birds, fish and other aquatic animals. Animals that are lost, mistreated or without owners
The 10 Best Animal Charities You Can (and Should) Donate
The Animal Welfare Institute. This charity’s concentrates on reducing animal cruelty. It works to ban the use of animals in laboratory experiments for beauty and pharmaceutical products. It also advocates against cruel slaughterhouse techniques and the fur industry in general.
30 Great Animal Organizations Worthy of Your Donations
Animal Rescue Corps is a 501(c)(3) organization, and all donations are tax deductible. Donations can be made here. Animal Welfare Institute What the Animal Welfare Institute Does: Established in 1951, the Animal Welfare Institute (AWI) seeks to “alleviate the suffering inflicted on animals by people.” To reach such a challenging goal, AWI
What are the best animal welfare charities in the UK
RSPCA is one of the best known UK animal charities around, perhaps because it is the world’s oldest animal welfare charity. Each day, the organisation answers 3,000 calls regarding animal welfare, cruelty and neglect, taking in over 240 animals and working tirelessly to give them a better quality of life.
Charity Navigator – Rating for Animal Welfare Institute
Animal Welfare Institute has earned a 4/4 Star rating on Charity Navigator. This Charitable Organization is headquartered in Washington, DC.
AustralianCharityGuide.org | Animal Welfare Charities
Search for Animal Welfare charities across Australia by charity name, town/city, postcode, state and website url. Donate to an Animal Welfare charity. Volunteer with an Animal Welfare charity. Partner with an Animal Welfare charity.
Top Rated Pet Charities to Support 2021 (Not Just With Money)
Charity Navigator rates on a “out of 100” scale, whereas Charity Watch uses a letter grade system (F to A+). Here’s a list of the top rated charities in the United States that focus on the welfare of pets. Animal Friends
Home | Gordon and Patricia Gray Animal Welfare Foundation
The Gordon and Patricia Gray Animal Welfare Foundation supports charities and organisations that are dedicated to saving and protecting animals, birds and sea life throughout the world. We’re incredibly grateful for the Gordon and Patricia Gray Animal Welfare Foundation’s generosity, enabling us to further our mission to safeguard Africa’s
Animal Charity Careers and Jobs Working in Animal Welfare
Charities such as the RSPCA and local councils employ Animal Welfare Officers or Inspectors. A career in animal welfare as an Animal Welfare Officer can be a rewarding one. The role involves working to prevent cruelty to animals and the licensing of animal-related premises.
Top 50 Pet Charities of 2020 | EntirelyPets
PetSmart Charities® and PetSmart Charities® of Canada are nonprofit animal welfare organizations that save the lives of homeless pets. More than 500,000 dogs and cats find homes each year through our adoption programs in all PetSmart® stores and our sponsored adoption events.
Greater Good Charities and Animal Planet's Jackson Galaxy
To date, a total of 203 animal welfare organizations have participated in Cat Pawsitive semesters, with over 1,700 individuals trained in Cat Pawsitive techniques to help save the lives of cats.
Homepage – AWFC
THE ANIMAL WELFARE FOUNDATION OF CANADA is a Canada Revenue Agency registered charity, number 11878-7290-RR0001. WHAT’S NEW 2022 GRANT RECIPIENTS – Organizations and individuals receiving AWFC grants for this year have been announced!
Home – The Animal Welfare Foundation
Funding student research is an important part of what we do, giving students an insight into the world of research and the opportunity to make a practical difference to animal welfare. In 2019 we granted funding to Sheryl Bradley, an MSc student of International Animal Welfare, Ethics and Law at the University of Edinburgh, for […]
Animal Charities – Investing In Communities®
Animal charities come in many different forms — from general organizations like pet charities that protect domestic animals to more specific organizations like horse charities that protect a particular species. Some animal charities focus on welfare and treatment standards that benefit multiple types of animals.
ANIMAL WELFARE FOUNDATION OF CANADA – Canadian Charities
Founded in 1965, the AWFC’s vision is that all animals be well cared for and treated with respect, and that an enlightened ethic of animal care be fostered. Our volunteer animal welfare experts evaluate proposals from animal charities and advocates and grant funds to effective educational, research and public outreach initiatives.
Donations made to animal welfare charities | West Ham
West Ham United is pleased to confirm that financial donations have been made to a number of animal welfare charities following the Club fine handed to Kurt Zouma. A total of nine organisations, supporting the care and wellbeing of animals both in the United Kingdom and internationally, have been identified to receive significant payments which will go towards supporting the fantastic work
PetSmart Charities Everyday Adoption Center — City of
350 Eubank NE, Albuquerque, NM 87123. Animal Welfare Locations – Google My Maps. Open full screen to view more. This map was created by a user. Learn how to create your own. Find your new best friend and save a life by adopting from PetSmart Charities® Everyday Adoption Center, a partner with the City of Albuquerque Animal Welfare Department.
The Largest Animal Welfare Charity in the UK | RSPCA
The RSPCA is the UK’s largest animal welfare charity and everything we do is based around our mission, our policies and our values. Our vision is to one day live in a world where all animals are respected and treated with compassion. And that is what we work towards every day. Shop.
5 of the Best and Most Reputable Animal Rescue Charities
If you’re searching for a great animal rescue charity with an impeccable track record, look no further than American Humane. It was founded in 1877 as the first national humane organization in the U.S. and has remained committed to “ensuring the safety, welfare, and well-being of animals” ever since.
International Fund for Animal Welfare | IFAW
as seen on tv! when the world’s endangered animals need help most, the International Fund for Animal Welfare is there for the animals you love. Become a Champion for Animals today! fresh thinking and bold action for animals, people and the place we call home. Updates. ifaw rushes emergency help to animals in Ukraine.
The 20 Best Environmental Charities & Animal Charities for
The Animal Welfare Institute got an A+ from Charity Watch. Around 92% of the money raised for AWI goes to its programs, with very little budgeted for admin and fundraising. All of the environmental charities and animal rights NGOs we’ve covered here are ranked among the best non-profit organizations by Charity Navigator and Charity Watch in
Animal Charity of Ohio, Inc – Home
Animal Charity is a 501 c3 registered non-profit organization with a veterinary clinic and is the only humane society in Mahoning County. Every year millions of pets are abused, neglected, and abandoned. Our affordable prices help support our humane program to fight animal cruelty and to educate the public on responsible pet ownership.
Animal Welfare Partnership Solidified in Sabah | Wild Welfare
The charity is currently celebrating its 10 year anniversary, and initially began working in Sabah in 2016. ~ENDS~ Notes to Editors. For more information or interview requests please contact Wild Welfare on [email protected]. Wild Welfare is a global organisation committed to improving animal welfare for captive wild animals.
Animal Welfare Nonprofits: the Good, the Bad, and the Ugly
Animal Welfare Nonprofits: the Good, the Bad, and the Ugly. This article is crossposted from Philanthropy Daily – published . Of all the charitable groups out there, I confess the ones that most irritate me are animal rights organizations. Of course helping animals is a worthy goal for charity. Animals are our friends! 1.
The EQUUS Foundation is the only national animal welfare charity in the United States 100% dedicated to safeguarding the comfort and dignity of America’s horses throughout their lives and sharing their magic and power with as many people as possible. Our mission is to protect America’s horses and strengthen the bond between horses and people.
Animal Welfare | Outreach | Irving and Phyllis Millstein
Grant Consideration by Invitation. The Irving and Phyllis Millstein Foundation for Animal Welfare ® issues grants to animal welfare charities and charities that provide people with animal-based services. Applying for a grant is by invitation only. For general information, please use this form to contact the Foundation.
PetSmart Charities' "Future of Animal Welfare" Will Harm
Petsmart Charities is underwriting and branding a presentation called The Future of Animal Welfare”. Petsmart Charities’ Chief of Analytics, Roger Haston, is traveling around the country, giving shelter workers and community members his view of what the future of animal welfare is, and the future he sees is pretty bleak.
Animal Welfare – The RS Macdonald Charitable Trust
Animal Welfare. We offer grants to charities that help animals that have been abused or are in danger of abuse. We also fund initiatives that reduce the risk of such abuse. Programmes that encourage responsible pet ownership are of particular interest, as are interventions that address the needs of vulnerable people as well as animals.
How to support animal lover Betty White's favorite cause – CNN
American Humane (formerly known as American Humane Association) is the first animal welfare group White joined, and she remained involved for more than 60 years. White said her acting work allowed
10 Best Animal Charities of 2019 | Top Dog Tips Awards Program
The 10 Best Animal Charities of 2019. PAWS Chicago. Website: www.pawschicago.org; The League for Animal Welfare is a privately funded non-profit who are dedicated to providing care for lost
The truth about animal charities, cats and dogs | William
The animal charity that received by far the most legacy donations was the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (£74.9m), which received less than either Cancer Research UK (£
Animal Welfare Fund | Effective Altruism Funds
Animal Charity Evaluators (ACE) is a charity evaluator specifically focused on evaluating animal charities and conducting research in the animal welfare space. ACE recommends charities based on their performance on seven criteria. Donors interested in improving animal welfare may want to consider donating directly to ACE’s recommended charities.
Animal Welfare Fund – A federation in the Combined Federal
Local animal charities everywhere are dedicated to protecting and improving the lives of animals and their communities. Whether it is a local rescue, shelter, or medical clinic, they offer desperately needed hope and help. The mission of the Animal Welfare Fund is to help these organizations take full advantage of the Combined Federal Campaign
List of animal welfare organizations – Wikipedia
Animal welfare organizations are concerned with the health, safety and psychological wellness of individual animals. These organizations include animal rescue groups and wildlife rehabilitation centres, which care for animals in distress and sanctuaries, where animals are brought to live and be protected for the rest of their lives.Their goals are generally distinct from conservation
More than a Pet Charity: Connecting People & Pets
Food is a question mark for 30 million pets. We partner with organizations that provide pet food for families facing economic hardship so we can change that. Nearly 50 million pets don’t receive veterinary care. We support programs that make veterinary services more accessible so we can change that. 5 million pets need a loving home.
Animal Welfare Institute
the Animal Welfare Institute has been dedicated to reducing animal suffering caused by people. We seek better treatment of animals everywhere— in the laboratory, on the farm, in commerce, at home, and in the wild.
Arizona Animal Welfare League
Arizona Animal Welfare League. 25 North 40th St. Phoenix, AZ 85034. Phone: 602-273-6852. Tax ID: 23-7149453. AAWL is a registered 501c3 non-profit. Arizona’s Oldest & Largest No-Kill Shelter. A “no-kill” shelter is an animal shelter that does not kill healthy or treatable animals even when the shelter is full, reserving euthanasia for
Global Animal Welfare Fund | LinkedIn
Global Animal Welfare Fund | 61 من المتابعين على LinkedIn. A registered Australian charity founded by Global Work & Travel to alleviate the suffering of native & farmed animals. | The Global Animal Welfare Fund (GAWF) was created to help fund Australian animal charities, with a view to expand into the developing world in the future. To date, GAWF has granted money to numerous
West Ham make donations to nine animal welfare charities
West Ham United have made donations to nine animal welfare charities after fining Kurt Zouma £250,000 after the defender was filmed kicking and slapping his pet cat last month. A video obtained
Zesty Paws & Solid Gold Partner With Greater Good
Greater Good Charities, with a 100/100 rating on Charity Navigator, has provided more than $400 million in impact, including cash grants, in-kind supplies, and programmatic support, to over 5,000
Charity Donations – Legacy.com
Animal Welfare charities. Lions Tigers & Bears: A Kitty’s PURRsuit of Happiness: Mindy’s Memory Primate Sanctuary: African Wildlife Foundation: National Anti-Vivisection Society:
FOUR PAWS International – Animal Welfare Organisation
FOUR PAWS. is the global animal welfare organisation for animals under direct human influence, which reveals suffering, rescues animals in need and protects them. Our vision is a world where humans treat animals with respect, empathy and understanding.
Assisi Animal Sanctuary | LinkedIn
Assisi Animal Sanctuary | 194 followers on LinkedIn. An independent Animal Welfare Charity in Northern Ireland | Founded in 1997, Assisi Animal Sanctuary is an independent animal welfare charity, providing shelter for hundreds of unwanted and stray animals throughout Northern Ireland. Each year Assisi rescues over 2,000 animals. Before re-homing all animals are neutered, microchipped
ISPCA – Ireland's national animal welfare charity caring
ISPCA – Ireland’s national animal welfare charity caring for all animals | 1,387 followers on LinkedIn. We prevent cruelty to animals, promote animal welfare and pro-actively relieve animal suffering across Ireland. | The ISPCA is Ireland’s largest national animal welfare charity, representing 17 affiliated member societies. Together the ISPCA and our members rescue, treat and responsibly
New chair for animal welfare charity – TFN
She will take up the position at Scotland’s animal welfare charity in May, succeeding current chair Ronnie Soutar when his term of office ends. Fiona brings considerable experience in the charity sector, having been a development board member for Pancreatic Cancer UK and chair of the Women’s Fund for Scotland.
Animal Welfare Charity in Russia and Former Soviet Union
10/08/2021. Know More. £10 will keep an orphan wild bear cub in rehabilitation fed for a day. £20 will spay a shelter cat and greatly raise their chance to be adopted. £50 will help to compile an animal cruelty prosecution case. £100 will fund a piece of equipment for an undercover investigation. £250 will help our Human Behaviour Change
Yanni Animal Welfare | Non-Profit Organization in Dubai
The First Non-Profit Organization Registered under the Government of Dubai, Yanni Animal Welfare. We are a volunteering group of different nationalities, colors & religions with a common humanitarian bond that is “Animals love & respect towards their soul’s value”
MRCVSonline | Animal welfare charities support Ukraine
Animal welfare charities and shelters both in Ukraine and around the world are working to support animals in need after Russia invaded Ukraine and began a Russo-Ukrainian War on 24 February 2022. Vizslamentés UK Rescue Trust and sister charity Vizslamentés Magyarorszag Charity in Budapest, Hungary have launched a Ukrainian rescue appeal
The Top 20+ Animal Welfare Organisations on the Web | TALK
Forever friends started out in 2011 and is an Australian registered charity in the animal welfare industry. The non-profit organisation publishes fantastic content perfect for research and understanding. The news section is a great resource for animal rescue related info, advice, guides and fundraising ideas.
Limerick Animal Welfare
©2021 by Limerick Animal Welfare. CHARITY NUMBER CHY 11598 – CRA NUMBER 20032197
West Ham donates to animal charities after Zouma's fine
The 27-year-old Zouma had apologized and requested his fine be donated to animal welfare charities. His exact salary has not been disclosed but British media reported the fine by West Ham to be
Everything You Need to Know About the IFAW – Charity Truth
The International Fund for Animal Welfare is a strong organization with a very rich history. Charity Navigator, a credible site that rates charities, gave the International Fund for Animal Welfare an overall score of 80.88 with an overall rating of three out of four stars. When broken down, IFAW received a financial score of 73.14 and an
25 Best Animal Charities to Donate to on World Animal Day 2018
The Performing Animal Welfare Society was founded in 1984 to protect performing animals, giving those that are abandoned, abused and retired a peaceful place to live. The organization ensures
gov.ie – Minister McConalogue launches the Animal Welfare
The Minister for Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Charlie McConalogue, today announced the launch of the Animal Welfare Grant Programme for Registered Animal Charities for 2021, inviting applications from registered animal charities providing animal welfare services in Ireland that wish to be considered for funding in 2021.
Animal Friends | LinkedIn
Animal Friends | 3,741 followers on LinkedIn. Did you know that we were founded to donate to animal welfare charities? So far, we’ve donated over £6 million! | Animal Friends Insurance is a UK based company with over 18 years’ experience in pet insurance. The company is staffed by a dedicated and knowledgeable team of animal lovers and Veterinary specialists, meaning you can be assured that
AWOL Home Page – Animal Welfare Of Luxor
Animal Welfare of Luxor – AWOL – is a small charity providing free veterinary care and treatment for the hard-working animals of the impoverished villages of Luxor’s west bank in Egypt. We are the ONLY animal care charity based on the west bank, our services are vital to the well-being of the animals and for the livelihoods of their owners.
Staying on track: Animal welfare charities | ACNC
Animal welfare charities also have a higher number of multiple concerns per charity. Matt: So you mean one charity getting a whole bunch of people say a few things about it. Beth: Which is more prominent with animal welfare charities than other parts of the charity sector, which is really interesting.
West Ham donate to animal charities after Zouma cat abuse
London (AFP) – West Ham have donated to nine animal welfare charities after their French defender Kurt Zouma was caught kicking his pet cat. Zouma was charged by the RSPCA after social media footage emerged last month showing the centre-back kicking and slapping the cat. A shoe was also thrown at the animal, while laughter […]
Animal Charities You Can Support With TheGivingMachine
RSPCA. RSPCA is one of the best known UK animal charities around, perhaps because it is the world’s oldest animal welfare charity. Each day, the organisation answers 3,000 calls regarding animal welfare, cruelty and neglect, taking in over 240 animals and working tirelessly to give them a better quality of life.
Animal Charities Directory Including – Charity Choice
Are you looking to support an animal charity? Are you concerned about the welfare of cats and dogs, or perhaps that of endangered animals? Whether you’d like to find out more about a specific animal charity or rescue centre, donate to a wildlife conservation charity, or volunteer your time to prevent animal cruelty, you’ll find all relevant UK-based organisations detailed in the sub-categories
Charity Intelligence Canada
Milton, ON. Montreal SPCA [Charity Rating: 4/5] Proudly Serving Animals Since 1869. Animal Welfare. Montreal, QC. Nova Scotia SPCA Subscribe now for charity ratings. Saving Lives, Creating Families. Animal Welfare. Dartmouth, NS.
Animal Welfare – All you need to know – Politics.co.uk
The charity subsequently attracted the patronage of Queen Victoria and went on to become the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA), well-known today as one of the world’s leading animal welfare organisations. Other animal charities began to be established towards the end of the 19th century and some, like the RSPCA